Indian Space Research Organisation(ISRO) is looking to cross new frontiers in the year 2020. after a successful moon mission in 2019, the Space Organisation is now want to decode the Sun. The ISRO is planning to launch an ambitious Solar Mission Aditya L1. However exact launch date is not confirmed by ISRO yet.
Just months after the successful launch of the ambitious moon mission Chandrayaan 2 India has said its sides on the sun. Indian Space Research Organisation will launch its Solar Mission Aditya L1 to unravel the mysteries of the celestial body that sustains on life on earth. Speaking about it in its last Mann Ki Baat program from 2019 for 2019 the Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that India is quite advanced in the field of astronomy and ISRO has taken path-breaking initiatives.
The launches scheduled for mid-2020 onboard polar satellite launch vehicle. Conceptualized in January 2008 Aditya L1 Mission was originally named Aditya one. It was initially conceived as a 400-kilo class satellite carrying one payload a chronograph. However, the enhanced Aditya L1 will be carrying 6 payloads.
The satellite will be inserted in a Halo orbit around the Lagrangian point 1 OR L1. that is roughly 1.5 million kilometres away from the Earth. Being placed in an L1 position give the satellite the major advantage of continuously viewing the sun without any eclipses.
Originally the main objective of the Aditya 1 Mission was to study the Solar Corona. However, the Aditya L1 mission now plans to carry out experiments to study other layers of the sun’s atmosphere as well. Other than Corona it also studies Sun’s chromosphere, photosphere, the particle flux emanating from the sun and reaching the L1 orbit.
The photosphere is the innermost layer of the sun’s atmosphere about 500 kilometres thick. The photosphere is the source of light and Solar flares. The chromosphere is a next layer that emits a reddish glow that can only be seen during a total solar eclipse. The Corona is outermost layer and aura of Plasma that envelops the sun and is visible to the naked eye during a total solar eclipse.
The sun’s Corona has a temperature of more than 1 million degrees Kelvin which is much higher than the solar disc temperature of around 6000k degree kelvin.
How the corona gets heated to such high temperatures is still and an unanswered question in Solar physics. One that Aditya L1 mission may find an answer to. To study the Sun The Aditya L1 mission will carry 6 payload including visible emission line chronograph to study the Diagnostic parameters of solar Corona, Solar ultraviolet imaging telescope to image solar Photosphere and chromosphere in near-ultraviolet and measure solar irradiance variations, Aditya solar wind particle experiment to study the variation of solar wind properties as well as its distribution and spectral characteristics. plasma analyser package for Aditya so as to understand the composition of solar wind and its energy distribution.
It will also carry a magnetometer to measure the magnitude and nature of the interplanetary magnetic field. The different payloads are being taken care off by multiple Institutions and hence the project provides an opportunity to all solar scientist from various institutes to participate in space-based instrumentation and observations.