The Nobel Prize is one of the most prestigious awards given to institutions or people for their outstanding work in the fields of physics, chemistry, literature, medicine, economics and peace. The Nobel Prize 2018 has been distributed and here is the full list of award winners. The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually on the death anniversary of Alfred Nobel.
Alfred Nobel also known as the founder of dynamite, Alfred Nobel did not want to be remembered as the founder of dynamite. Therefore, to regain control of his legacy, he established the Nobel Prize that would recognize people who had made positive contributions to mankind. In this article, we talk about this year’s recipients of the Nobel Prize winner 2018 in Chemistry, Physics and Medicine.
मेडिसिन के लिए नोबेल पुरस्का इम्यून चेकप्वांइट थेरेपी के लिए दिया गया है| यह हमारा प्रतिरक्षा तंत्र शरीर को तमाम बीमारियों से बचाता है। यह एक खास तरह की प्रोटीन से गाइड किया जाता है। कैंसर कोशिकाएं भी इसी प्रोटीन की मदद से आसपास चेकप्वाइंट बना लेती हैं।
नई इलाज पद्धति से इन्हीं प्रोटीन या चेकप्वांइट को खत्म किया जा सकेगा| प्रतिरक्षा कोशिकाएं. कैंसर कोशिकाओं को मारने में सक्षम हो जाएगी।
रसायन विज्ञान का नोबेल पुरस्कार एंजाइम्स और एंटीबॉडी का विकास के लिए दिया गया। अब वांछित गुणों के साथ नए प्रोटीन के निर्माण की पद्धति गन्ना को जैव ईंधन जैसे नवीकरणीय संसाधनों में बदलना मुमकिन हो पायेगा और साथ ही पर्यावरण अनुकूल रसायनिक पर्यावरण अनुकूल रसायनिक पदार्थ बनाना संभव हो पायेगा| डिटरजेंट जैसे रोजमर्रा के उत्पादों को बेहतर बनाया गया,फेज डिसप्ले नामक अनुठा तरीका विकसित, बैक्टीरिया को संक्रमित करने वाले वायरस बैक्टीरियोफेज तैयार किया गया|
|S.n||Winner Name 2018||Nobel Prize Field|
|1||James P. Allison||Physiology or Medicine|
|2||Tasuku Honjo||Physiology or Medicine|
The Nobel Prize For Chemistry 2018
Frances H. Arnold awarded For the directed evolution of enzymes while George P. Smith and Gregory P. Winter awarded for the phage display of peptides and antibodies. In 1993 Conducted first directed evolution of enzymes Refined methods now routinely used to develop new catalysts. Frances H. Arnold Uses of her enzymes include more environmentally friendly manufacturing of chemical substances like pharmaceuticals, production of renewable fuels for a greener transport sector.
Chemistry Nobel Prize George Smith & Gregory Winter-in 1985 George Smith developed an elegant method known as phage display Method in which a bacteriophage – virus that infects bacteria – can be used to evolve new antibodies.
Gregory Winter used phage display for directed evolution of antibodies, aim to produce new pharmaceuticals. in 2002 the First antibody based on phage display method, adalimumab, approved. The antibody used for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel diseases. Phage display has produced antibodies that can neutralise toxins, counteract autoimmune diseases, cure metastatic cancer.
Nobel Prize For Medicine 2018
James P. Allison one of two to identify CTLA-4 molecule as an inhibitory receptor on T-cells. T-cells are the type of WBC that play a central role in the body’s natural immunity to disease.
Tasuku Honjo discovered protein-ligand PD-1 on immune cells, realised it also worked as a brake research on immunology to fight cancer over a century old. So far progress into clinical development has been modest antibodies against PD-1 approved by US FDA as an investigational new drug; developed for treating cancer. Research led to the development of a monoclonal antibody drug for the treatment of melanoma.
Nobel Prize For Medicine 2018 For Pathbreaking Inventions
Dr Strickland and Dr Mourou co-invented Chirped Pulse Amplification, Method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses, used in corrective laser eye surgery, used in semiconductor manufacturing, solid state hard drives.
History Of Nobel Prizes(1st Nobel Prize)
- Chemistry:- Jacobus Hendricus Van’t Hoff (1852-1911) received the first Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1901 for his work on solutions.
- Physics Wilhelm C. Röntgen
- Physiology or Medicine Emil A. von Behring
- Literature Rene F. A. Sully Prudhomme
Alfred Noble’s Will:-“The bulk of his vast fortune be placed in a fund in which the interest would be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.”
Alfred Nobel’s Inventions
- 1863 Invented a way to control detonation of nitroglycerin.
- 1864 Nobel’s nitroglycerin factory blew up, killing his younger brother and several other people.
- 1867 Combination of nitroglycerin and Kieselguhr produced a highly explosive mixture that was much safer to use. Nobel called this dynamite.
- 1875 Created a more powerful form of dynamite, blasting gelatin.
- 1887 Introduced ballistite, a smokeless nitroglycerin powder.
Some Notable Nobel Prize Laureates
- Marie Curie:-Marie Sklodowska Curie Born in Poland. She is recognised both as a physicist and as a chemist. She was the first person to be awarded two Nobel Prizes- for Physics in 1903 and for Chemistry in 1911.
- Theodore Roosevelt
- Albert Einstein
- George Bernard Shaw
- Winston Churchill
- Ernest Hemingway
- Martin Luther King Jr.
- Dalai Lama
- Mikhail Gorbachev
- Nelson Mandela
- “Baroness Bertha von Suttner first woman Nobel Peace prize winner in 1905.
- Malala Yousafzai youngest to get Nobel Prize in 2014.
- Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) Einstein, one of the greatest physicists of all time, was born in Ulm, Germany. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1921 for his contribution to theoretical physics and the photoelectric effect.
- De Broglie was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons In 1929.
- The wave nature of electrons was first experimentally verified by C.J. Davisson and L.H. Germer in 1927 and independently by G.P. Thomson, in 1928, who observed diffraction effects with beams of electrons scattered by crystals. Davisson and Thomson shared the Nobel Prize in 1937 for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals.
- Franck and Hertz found that the emission spectrum of mercury has a line corresponding to this wavelength. For this experimental verification of Bohr’s basic ideas of discrete energy levels in atoms and the process of photon emission, Frank and Hertz were awarded the Nobel prize in 1925.
- The explanation of the hydrogen atom spectrum provided by Bohr’s model was a brilliant achievement, which greatly stimulated progress towards the modern quantum theory. In 1922, Bohr was awarded Nobel Prize in Physics.
- Dennis Gabor received the 1971 Nobel Prize in Physics for discovering the principles of holography.
- Richand Feynman was one of the recipients of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for his fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics.
- The scattering of light by molecules was intensively investigated by C.V. Raman and his collaborators in Kolkata in the 1920s. Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for this work.
- Hendrik Antoon Lorentz a Dutch theoretical physicist, a professor at Leiden. He postulated the existence of electric charges in the atom, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1902.
- G. Natta of Imperia and Karl Ziegler of Germany were awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1963 for the development of Ziegler-Natta catalyst.
- Paul Ehrlich got Nobel prize for Medicine in 1908 for this discovery. It was the first effective treatment discovered for syphilis.
- H.W. Florey and Alexander Fleming shared the Nobel prize for Medicine in 1945 for their independent contributions to the development of penicillin.
- Hydroboration-oxidation was first reported by H.C. Brown in 1959. For his studies on boron-containing organic compounds, Brown shared the 1979 Nobel prize in Chemistry with G. Wittig.
Nobel Prize For Economics:-In 1968 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science established by the Swedish national bank Sveriges Riksbank and first awarded in 1969.
Selecting The Winners For Nobel Prize:-Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decides the prizes in physics, chemistry, and economic science Swedish Royal Caroline Medico-Surgical Institute determines the physiology or medicine award. Swedish Academy chooses literature Committee elected by the Norwegian parliament awards the peace prize.